Report Pretreatment methods and techniques

Case by case approach
What these by-products are and how they can still be valorised is highly dependent on the type of crop and its production methods. Because of this, a case by case approach was necessary to identify and characterise the generated by-products and develop specific processes and applications for them. Qualitative by-products and food waste fractions that are underused or treated as waste can still be processed to obtain sustainable ingredients with applications in a wide variety of applications as well as non-food.

By-product characterisation
By-products from a selection of vegetables (Cabbage, White cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Broccoli stems, Kale, Belgian Endive roots, Chicory roots, Oyster mushroom stems, Black salsify, Pointed Sweet Bell Pepper) were characterised to extract fibres and determine their content in bioactive compounds. Additionally the press cakes from the apple juicing industry, residual cooking fluids from the chickpea and soy-industry, and rejected class II pointed sweet bell peppers were characterised and the pre-processing potential of edible brassica varieties to obtain a minimally processed stable and tasteful purée was largely investigated.

Novel food applications
ILVO and VIVES studied and developed novel value-added applications from by-products of the fruit and vegetable industry by using them in specially adapted recipes. New recipes for tomato juices using class II tomatoes were created and tested by ILVO Food Pilot jointly with BioBoost partner Tomabel, a Belgian quality label for tomatoes. These juices were assessed by a taste panel and the stability was monitored over the course of one year. Novel recipes were developed with the residual cooking fluids from industrial processing of legumes as an egg replacement to make chocolate mousses and vegan cheese, jams and jellies were made with class II pointed sweet bell peppers, a sweet bell pepper ketchup and chutney was developed, yacon root pulp ice cream was made by Vives as well as cookies from spent grain from the brewing industry ... and many more.

Shelf life
Finally a microbiological assessment under storage conditions has been done by ILVO for some of the novel by-product based creations to gain insights on their shelf-life.

The full report can be found in the on the BioBoost website in the publications section.